Local Dental Research

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Dental Research by MDS Members print this page

Below is a summary of some local dental related research being conducted by MDS members.

research


Efficacy of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Dr. Pushkar MehraMDS Member Researcher(s) Include: Pushkar Mehra, BDS, DMD, and David Cottrell, DMD

Abstract: This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of different pharmacological regimens on the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in urine and saliva, and to correlate the findings to the clinical course after removal of impacted lower third molars. Eighty patients were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 received placebo; group 2 received preoperative ibuprofen, which was continued for a week; group 3 received intraoperative dexamethasone; and group 4 received preoperative ibuprofen, which was continued for a week, in addition to intraoperative dexamethasone. Saliva and urine samples were taken at scheduled intervals. Patients receiving ibuprofen fared significantly better in most parameters. A single dose of dexamethasone alone had a potent but transient beneficial effect when compared to the results with ibuprofen, which showed significant improvement in both subjective and objective parameters. Use of a single dose of intravenous steroids perioperatively helped reduce untoward sequelae, although to a lesser degree and for a shorter duration than continuous ibuprofen. Combining ibuprofen with perioperative dexamethasone added some benefit in some of the measured parameters, but without a statistically significant advantage over using ibuprofen only. 

Full Article:International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery; July 2013

Emergency Management of Dental Traumas

Dr. Isabelle ChaseMDS Member Researcher(s) Include: Isabelle Chase, DDS

Abstract:One of the most common oral injuries that occur in the child or adolescent involves the avulsed tooth. There has been an increase in the numbers of these injuries worldwide to sports activities, and some of the newer recreational activities (skate-boarding, trampoline jumping etc). Worldwide there are 5.8 million cases of trauma per year. Male patients are 2/3 of victims, hospitalizations have increased thirty-fold and emergency room visits have increased 300-fold. 

Although this is a common problem for all types of dental practices, many injuries occur after hours or on weekends when most dental practices are shut. Therefore many cases present to the Emergency Room, where there are no dental staff present. It is incumbent on the medical staff to have an understanding on how to diagnose dental injuries, manage them and make the appropriate referral to a dental practitioner 

There are several injuries that can occur to the oral area (soft tissue, fractures to the teeth, luxations, avulsions), this first resource will focus on how to deal with avulsions. An avulsion of a tooth occurs when the tooth gets knocked out the socket. Typically this occurs to the central incisors, and the maxillary teeth are affected more than the mandibular teeth.

The objectives of the resources developed (powerpoint, problem based learning case and video) are to teach the student/practitioner how to provide first-line management for stabilizing oral injuries, specifically the avulsed tooth, to the point of referral.

Full Article:MedEdPORTAL; 2013

Hospitalizations primarily attributed to dental conditions in the United States in 2008

Romesh Nalliah DDSMDS Member Researcher(s) Include: Romesh Nalliah, DDS
Abstract:

Objective - The objective of this study was to provide estimates of hospitalizations attributed to oral health related conditions in the United States (US).

Study Design - The nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) for 2008 was used. Hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of dental/oral health–related conditions were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes.

Results - A total of 50,658 hospital admissions were primarily attributed to oral health–related conditions in 2008. Total US hospitalization charges were $1.218 billion. Total US hospitalization days were 174,496 days.

Conclusions - The current study examines outcomes in patients hospitalized primarily for dental/oral health–related conditions. Of 39,885,120 hospitalizations that occurred in the US, a total of 50,658 (1.27%) were primarily attributed to dental-related conditions. Substantial resources are spent in treating dental-related conditions in hospital settings. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012;114:333-337)

Full Article:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology 2012 Sept.

Whole-saliva Proteolysis and Its Impact on Salivary Diagnostics

Oppenheim FrankMDS Member Researcher(s) Include: Frank Oppenheim, DMD, PhD 

Abstract: There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper handling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible  proteins—histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1—was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the
use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes.

Full Article: Journal of Dental Research 2011 Sept 13. 



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